- How does online redefine
the notion of mass communication, discuss with suitable examples.
There are mainly four types of online journalism: mainstream news sites, search engines, media watch dogs and media discussion groups and lastly 'share and discussion' sites. Online media has redefined the notion of mass communication in the following ways”
- news cycle. It is instant,
and grinding 24 hours a day.
- Frequency of updation: it
involves constant updation. News stories can be updated any time
- packaging: number of
stories can be uploaded simultenousley. Texts, photos, visuals,
animation and all other types of information can be delivered at
once. It has more layout designing options. Hyperlink serve the
function of news headline.
- Knowledge links: we can
hyperlink the story to the backgrounders or the related news stories
even in other sites. Archives also can be hyperlinked.
- News vehicles: it enables
the dissemination of news in different formats. These range from
plain text to audio bytes to visual clips. The news can be accesses
on a desktop, download and read, heard or viewed.
Examples of it are:
1.online news portals have helped people to access information from anywhere, any time with just few clicks.
2. It’s a story that being repeated throughout the Arab world, with special significance in Syria which has blocked traditional journalists from entering so most of the reporting that is coming out of there at the moment is from ordinary citizens risking their lives to get the story of what is happening. The country, ruled by Bashar al-Assad since 2000, has also been the site of the most brutal crackdowns against protesters. Syrians and the rest of the world have been watching video from a single source: YouTube.
3. Blogs is one of the new communication method and millions are taking advantage of this personal website to get messages out to friends, family or the world.
2.Discuss citizen journalism also discuss how the on-line media have been vital in the development of citizen journalism?
---In a world in which its clear that the concept of editor as gatekeeper has largely evaporated. Today any one can be a reporter or a publisher, the media have been democratized. For those who truly believe that multiple voices give rise to a better educated electorate, on its face thats a good thing.
Citizen journalism is that form of journalism which each individual can practice and participate. Many mainstream journalists now recognize the value of citizen-produced content. When citizen journalism first appeared, most main stream media rejected it as unprofessional. But there is a reality that citizen journalism brings a fresh perspective to the news.
Citizen journalism can be of different forms, like Audience Participation, Independent news or information web sites, participatory news sites, collaborative and contributory news sites, thin media and personal broadcasting sites.
On-line media have been a vital role in the development of citizen journalism because with the emergence and accessibility of the Internet, citizen journalism has become possible. As the meaning of citizen journalism is every individual contributing, the content or the material collected is transferred through web. Mobiles, blog, social networking sites etc are used for citizen journalism and all of these are possible only in the presence of Internet.
The content can be directly uploaded through online media. Different materials can be seen through online media as document, video, audio, picture, multimedia or text. Mediums like:Rich Media,Internet calling, conversion tool, poadcaste, cloud computing, social networking site, digital story telling, micro blogs, blogs etc are used as online media.
The convergence of the media can be a reason why citizen journalism is being so popular in in reach of the general people. It wasn’t really until things like blogger, a blog publishing service that was launched in 1999, that everyday people actually had the ability to create content and put it online without any technical knowledge or understanding of HTML.Flickr was launched in 2004, becoming one of the first and most accessible online communities of photographers which is now used by many organizations as a place to find photos in breaking stories. It introduced tagging, making photos search able, and groups that made finding photos relating to specific events easy. Prior to Youtube, which was only launched in 2005, there was no common format for videos. meaning that unless you had a compatible file your video could not be uploaded online. Before Twitter, which came in being in 2006, there was no way to easily break news is almost real-time fashion. So with the development of these online media the development of citizen journalism was possible.
3. Discuss functions and dysfunctions of web 2.0 and social media with suitable examples.
Web 2.0 is the term given to describe a second generation of the World Wide Web that is focused on the ability for people to collaborate and share information online. Web 2.0 basically refers to the transition from static HTML Web pages to a more dynamic Web that is more organized and is based on serving Web applications to users. Other improved functionality of Web 2.0 includes open communication with an emphasis on Web-based communities of users, and more open sharing of information. Over time Web 2.0 has been used more as a marketing term than a computer-science-based term. Blogs, wikis, and Web services are all seen as components of Web 2.0.
Web 2.0 was previously used as a synonym for Semantic Web, but while the two are similar, they do not share precisely the same meaning.
The functions of web 2.0 and social media are:
Blogging A simple blog is typically operated by an individual who regularly posts comments and news, often including multimedia files.
Productivity and Creativity Online productivity tools help get work done and enable collaboration. Documents can also typically be downloaded to your computer.
Digital Storytelling Digital storytelling uses digital multimedia to engage in the age-old art of storytelling.
Wikis A Wiki is a series of web pages that, once created, can be edited and maintained by multiple users, typically as a long-term knowledge repository or database. It is usually devoted to a specific subject or field of interest.
Online Surveys Online surveys gather opinions easily with minimal technical knowledge.
Podcasting A podcast is a digital media file including audio and sometimes video that is syndicated, subscribed to, and downloaded automatically when new content is added.
Photo and Video Sharing Photo and video sharing services include archival descriptions with capabilities varying from site to site and often include a tremendous amount of quality educational content.
Learning Management Systems Learning management systems include free and open-source resources that deliver, track, and manage online learning.
RSS Feeds RSS feeds are a convenient way to stay informed. Subscribers select Web sites and blogs and subscribe to an online "aggregator" service to keep track of all their news feeds in one place.
Social Bookmarking Social bookmarking sites store and allow users to comment on favorite Web resources and share them with others.
Collaboration and Networking Collaboration and networking enable dynamic interaction among people when they work together on common goals. Social networks provide a variety of ways for users to interact.
• Democratization of media.
• Relationships and conversation.
• Creativity and re-mix culture.
• Embrace your passion and identity.
• Community, sharing, and connecting.
• Increase transparency in government and organizations.
Dysfunction of web or social media are:
• Lots of great content still gets overlooked. Current lack of good filters creates problems finding the best content.
• Writers have problems delivering content consistently.
• Anonymity can engender polarization and hate.
• Information overload and social networking overload.
• Work/Life balance is hard to achieve.
• literacy barrier
• chance of fake information
• Lack of responsibility.
• you will need to commit resources to managing your social media presence, responding to feedback and producing new content
• it can be difficult to quantify the return on investment and the value of one channel over another
• ineffective use - for example, using the network to push for sales without engaging with customers, or failing to respond to negative feedback - may damage your reputation
4. Mark Zuckerberg:
-- Mark Zuckerberg is the co-founder and chief executive of Facebook, the world’s largest social network, with more than 800 million active users around the world, and roughly 200 million in the United States.
Facebook, born in Mr. Zuckerberg’s Harvard dorm room in 2004, has grown from being a quirky site for college students into a popular platform that is used to sell cars and movies, win over voters in presidential elections and organize protest movements. It offers advertisers a global platform, with the exception of China, where Facebook does not operate.
Mark Zuckerberg is the founder and CEO of Facebook, which he started in his college dorm room in 2004 with roomates Dustin Moskovitz and Chris Hughes.
Zuckerberg is responsible for setting the overall direction and product strategy for Facebook. He leads the design of Facebook’s service and development of its core technology and infrastructure.
Earlier in life, Zuckerberg developed a music recommendation system called Synapse and a peer-to-peer client called Wirehog. However, he abandoned both to pursue new projects.
Zuckerberg attended Harvard University and studied computer science before founding Facebook.
While at Harvard, Zuckerberg created Facemash, a website that compared students’ dorm photos side-by-side in a fashion similar to HOT or NOT. Harvard administration was not amused, and Zuckerberg faced subsequent disciplinary action. Less than three months later, he launched Facebook.
In September 2010, Zuckerberg donated $100 million to the Newark Public School System to help renovate and revamp the system.
Zuckerberg won the 2007 Crunchie Award for ‘Best Startup CEO.’ He was the Time Magazine 2010 Person Of The Year.